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Summary : Catalina de Erauso (1592-1650) was a Basque noblewoman who, just before taking final vows to become a nun, escaped from the convent at San Sebastián, dressed as a man, and, in her own words, "went hither and thither, embarked, went into port, took to roving, slew, wounded, embezzled, and roamed about." Her long service fighting for the Spanish empire in Peru and Chile won her a soldier's pension and a papal dispensation to continue dressing in men's clothing. This theoretically informed study analyzes the many ways in which the "Lieutenant Nun" has been constructed, interpreted, marketed, and consumed by both the dominant and divergent cultures in Europe, Latin America, and the United States from the seventeenth century to the present. Sherry Velasco argues that the ways in which literary, theatrical, iconographic, and cinematic productions have transformed Erauso's life experience into a public spectacle show how transgender narratives expose and manipulate spectators' fears and desires. Her book thus reveals what happens when the private experience of a transgenderist is shifted to the public sphere and thereby marketed as a hybrid spectacle for the curious gaze of the general audience.
Summary : One of the earliest known autobiographies by a woman, this is the extraordinary tale of Catalina de Erauso, who in 1599 escaped from a Basque convent dressed as a man and went on to live one of the most wildly fantastic lives of any woman in history. A soldier in the Spanish army, she traveled to Peru and Chile, became a gambler, and even mistakenly killed her own brother in a duel. During her lifetime she emerged as the adored folkloric hero of the Spanish-speaking world. This delightful translation of Catalina's own work introduces a new audience to her audacious escapades.
Summary : This book examines Vida y sucesos de la Monja Alférez as a form of autobiography through a comparative study with early-modern secular life narratives. Two questions are addressed. How is Vida y sucesos similar to or different from picaresque novels, chronicles of the New World and soldiers’ narratives? How are the similarities and differences between Vida y sucesos and these forms of writing related to theoretical parameters for an autobiography? This book argues that Vida y sucesos should be considered as a form of autobiography, with the understanding that autobiography is an intersubjective and hybrid form or a forma fronteriza.
Summary : Catalina de Erauso, known as the Lieutenant Nun, is one of the most colourful figures in the conquest of the Americas. A novice in a nunnery, she escaped and dressed as a boy. She then embarked on a chequered career in Peru as a soldier. Zogbaum follows the path of this exceptional woman and the historical circumstances which allowed such capers.
Summary : "An investigation of the life and historical milieu of Catalina de Erauso (1592-1650), the lieutenant nun, with emphasis on her national and gender identities"--Provided by publisher.
Summary : With the pressures of globalization, internationalization of production, migration, and the transmission of information, former concepts of identity and cultural configuration are increasingly challenged. In Explorations on Subjectivity, Borders, and Demarcation, editors and contributors Raul A. Galoppe and Richard Weiner examine the shift in subjectivity, borders, and demarcation within Iberian and Latin American studies. This comprehensive volume examines these issues in terms of race, economy, gender,and marginality. By using an interdisciplinary approach that draws from literature, literary theory, and history this collection offers a timely discourse for the entire academic community. In contrast to similar studies this collection goes beyond the geographic aspects of borders and demarcation. These articles not only examine Latin American places and people; but, also the Latin American identity in Europe and the Mediterranean, and the experiences of other groups such as Asian Latin Americans and Indians. This collection of nine articles from both established scholars and new academic voices serves as a well-knit mosaic of perspectives that reflect the intermingling state of subjectivity, borders, and demarcation; and in turn, postmodern academia. -- Publisher description.
Summary : Here is an intriguing exploration of the ways in which the history of the Spanish Conquest has been misread and passed down to become popular knowledge of these events. The book offers a fresh account of the activities of the best-known conquistadors and explorers, including Columbus, Cortés, and Pizarro. Using a wide array of sources, historian Matthew Restall highlights seven key myths, uncovering the source of the inaccuracies and exploding the fallacies and misconceptions behind each myth. This vividly written and authoritative book shows, for instance, that native Americans did not take the conquistadors for gods and that small numbers of vastly outnumbered Spaniards did not bring down great empires with stunning rapidity. We discover that Columbus was correctly seen in his lifetime--and for decades after--as a briefly fortunate but unexceptional participant in efforts involving many southern Europeans. It was only much later that Columbus was portrayed as a great man who fought against the ignorance of his age to discover the new world. Another popular misconception--that the Conquistadors worked alone--is shattered by the revelation that vast numbers of black and native allies joined them in a conflict that pitted native Americans against each other. This and other factors, not the supposed superiority of the Spaniards, made conquests possible. The Conquest, Restall shows, was more complex--and more fascinating--than conventional histories have portrayed it. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest offers a richer and more nuanced account of a key event in the history of the Americas.
Summary : Women’s life writing in general has too often been ignored, dismissed, or relegated to a separate category in those few studies of the genre that include it. The present work addresses these issues and offers a countervailing argument that focuses on the contributions of women writers to the study of autobiography in Spanish during the early modern period. There are, indeed, examples of autobiographical writing by women in Spain and its New World empire, evident as early as the fourteenth-century Memorias penned by Doña Leonor López de Cordóba and continuing through the seventeenth-century Cartas of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. What sets these accounts apart, the author shows, are the variety of forms adopted by each woman to tell her life and the circumstances in which she adapts her narrative to satisfy the presence of male critics-whether ecclesiastic or political, actual or imagined-who would dismiss or even alter her life story. Analyzing how each of these women viewed her life and, conversely, how their contemporaries-both male and female-received and sometimes edited her account, Howe reveals the tension in the texts between telling a ’life’ and telling a ’lie’.
Summary : Have we ever really believed in gender? Is there any evidence that we have resisted, rejected, and denied the division of human beings into 'male' and 'female'? Both our charter narratives and popular media murmur a persistent «no». The theories of Luce Irigaray, Mikhail Bakhtin, and Roland Barthes, when applied to works as varied as Bible stories, parables, nursery rhymes, Greek myths and drama, Shakespeare's plays, and contemporary film reveal a new character - the transcengenderist mucosa. The transcengenderist mucosa - an original metaphor derived from our own deep physical structures: our permeable cellular membranes - deconstructs the equilibrium of binary gender transcends 'male' and 'female' by being, simultaneously, both and neither. Through the agency of the transcengenderist mucosa, who operates in the liminal space between male and female, we recognize that 'gender' does not exist in reality, and that the violence and destruction inherent in the binary definition of gender can be transcended.
Summary : This first full-length study in English on seventeenth-century Italian travel writing enriches our understanding of an unusually fertile period for Italian contributions to the genre. The intrinsic qualities of this literature can now be grasped in terms of the larger question of cultural identity in Italy. For Hester, the specifically literary characteristics of Italian travel writing--including its humanism or Petrarchism--highlight the classic eminence throughout Europe of a prestigious tradition inherent to Italy, one compensating then for the peninsula's lack of a national political identity.
Summary : In this first in-depth study of female homosexuality in the Spanish Empire for the period from 1500 to 1800, Velasco presents a multitude of riveting examples that reveal widespread contemporary interest in women's intimate relations with other women. Her sources include literary and historical texts featuring female homoeroticism, tracts on convent life, medical treatises, civil and Inquisitional cases, and dramas. She has also uncovered a number of revealing illustrations from the period. The women in these accounts, stories, and cases range from internationally famous transgendered celebrities to lesbian criminals, from those suspected of "special friendships" in the convent to ordinary villagers. Velasco argues that the diverse and recurrent representations of lesbian desire provide compelling evidence of how different groups perceived intimacy between women as more than just specific sex acts. At times these narratives describe complex personal relationships and occasionally characterize these women as being of a certain "type," suggesting an early modern precursor to what would later be recognized as divergent lesbian, bisexual, and transgender identities.