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Summary : By the winner of the 1988 Nobel Prize in Economics, an essential and paradigm-altering framework for understanding economic development--for both rich and poor--in the twenty-first century. Freedom, Sen argues, is both the end and most efficient means of sustaining economic life and the key to securing the general welfare of the world's entire population. Releasing the idea of individual freedom from association with any particular historical, intellectual, political, or religious tradition, Sen clearly demonstrates its current applicability and possibilities. In the new global economy, where, despite unprecedented increases in overall opulence, the contemporary world denies elementary freedoms to vast numbers--perhaps even the majority of people--he concludes, it is still possible to practically and optimistically restain a sense of social accountability. Development as Freedom is essential reading.
Summary : In this engaging new book, Katrin Flikschuh offers an accessible introduction to divergent conceptions of freedom in contemporary liberal political philosophy. Beginning with a discussion of Isaiah Berlin's seminal distinction between negative and positive liberty, the book goes on to consider Gerald MacCallums alternative proposal of freedom as a triadic concept. The abiding influence of Berlin's argument on the writings of contemporary liberal philosophers such as Robert Nozick, Hillel Steiner, Ronald Dworkin and Joseph Raz, is fully explored in subsequent chapters. Flikschuh shows that, instead of just one negative and one positive freedom tradition, contemporary liberal thinkers articulate the meaning and significance of liberal freedom in many different and often conflicting ways. What should we make of such diversity and disagreement? Should it undermine our confidence in the coherence of liberal freedom? Should we strive towards greater conceptual and normative unity? Flikschuh argues that moral and political disagreement about freedom can often be traced back to differences in underlying metaphysical presuppositions and commitments. Yet these differences do not show liberal freedom debates to be confused or incoherent. On the contrary, they demonstrate the centrality of this philosophically elusive idea to the continued vitality of liberal political thinking.
Summary : In this book, G. A. Cohen examines the libertarian principle of self-ownership, arguing that it cannot deliver the freedom it promises to secure thus undermining the concept that lovers of freedom should embrace capitalism & its accompanying inequality.
Summary : In authoritarian states, the discourse on freedom of speech, conducted by those opposed to non-democratic governments, focuses on the core aspects of this freedom: on a right to criticize the government, a right to advocate theories arid ideologies contrary to government-imposed orthodoxy, a right to demand institutional reforms, changes in politics, resignation of the incompetent and the corrupt from positions of authority. The claims for freedom of speech focus on those exercises of freedom that are most fundamental and most beneficial to citizens - and which are denied to them by the government. But in a by-and large democratic polity, where these fundamental benefits of freedom of speech are generally enjoyed by the citizens, the public and scholarly discourse on freedom of speech hovers about the peripheries of that freedom; the focus is on its outer boundaries rather than at the central territory of freedom of speech. Those borderline cases, in which people who are otherwise genuinely committed to the core aspects of freedom of speech may sincerely disagree, include pornography, racist hate speech and religious bigoted expressions, defamation of politicians and of private persons, contempt of court, incitement to violence, disclosure of military or commercial secrets, advertising of merchandise such as alcohol or cigarettes or of services and entertainment such as gambling and prostitution.
Summary : Americans are joiners--of churches, community associations, and service organizations of all kinds. This volume explores the individual and civic values of associational freedom in a liberal democracy.
Summary : Oksala identifies the different interpretations of freedom in Foucault's philosophy and examines its three major divisions.
Summary : Recent years have seen considerable growth in the media in Africa with increases in the number of newspapers and radio and television stations. At the same time there has been an increase in the number of arrests of journalists and broadcasters and various forms of censorship have been introduced. The essays in this volume examine press censorship, past and present, and bring a fresh perspective to the position of the mass media in the African continent.
Summary : This volume collects all Henry Allison's recent essays on Kant's theoretical and practical philosophy.
Summary : The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) provides workers with minimum wage, overtime pay, and child labor protections. The FLSA covers most, but not all, private and public sector employees. In addition, certain employers and employees are exempt from coverage. Provisions of the FLSA that are of current interest to Congress include the basic minimum wage, subminimum wage rates, exemptions from overtime and the minimum wage for persons who provide companionship services, the exemption for employees in computer-related occupations, compensatory time in lieu of overtime pay, and break time for nursing mothers. The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) recognizes the right of employees to engage in collective bargaining through representatives of their own choosing. By "encouraging the practice and procedure of collective bargaining," the Act attempts to mitigate and eliminate labor-related obstructions to the free flow of commerce. Although union membership has declined dramatically since the 1950s, congressional interest in the NLRA remains significant. This book provides an overview of both the Fair Labor Standards Act and the National Labor Relations Act with a focus on coverage, amendments and policy.
Summary : Human freedom has been the source of both the high points of humanity as well as of its low points, thus giving rise to the impression that it is a somewhat ambivalent concept. According to Martien Brinkman, the major factor in this ambivalence is the rather narrow meaning that the concept has received in the course of history. Freedom is, for the most part, understood as 'freedom from' or 'freedom to' but only rarely as 'freedom for'. However, it is precisely this latter understanding that is closest to the Christian understanding of freedom, which Brinkman defines as 'internal attachment'. In his view Christian freedom is at bottom characterized by that to which one commits oneself in trust. He sees primarily the Christian theology of baptism, with its accent on 'dying' and 'rising' with Christ as the model for the way in which one acquires freedom. Brinkman illustrates this in this study by means of a great number of biblical images and images borrowed from the historical debates between Augustine and Pelagius and Luther and Erasmus.
Summary : Freedom for the Seas in the 21st Century brings together leading international experts on marine policy to address current threats to the health of the seas and to offer new approaches to the challenge of protecting our marine environment. The paradigm presented is one of ocean governance rather than of law or policy; it challenges the prevailing concept of "freedom of the seas" and calls instead for a governing notion of "freedom for the seas" where the primary goal is the protection of ecological vitality.Topics covered include: strategies for controlling ocean pollution regulation of high-seas fishing defects in current deep seabed mining regulatory provisions threats to the marine environment posed by military activities
Summary : This work is an introductory textbook to the arguments about individual freedom. The text introduces and assesses the key arguements for and against individual freedom and toleration, and views the concepts of negative and positive freedom.
Summary : Freedom of Speech and Employment is a new study of the employment law implications for employees who exercise the right to free speech. The book examines the philosophical basis for protecting free speech, the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 and article 10 of the ECHR, the implications of free speech for the contract of employment, the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998, and the special position of local government and NHS staff and civil servants.
Summary : A radically unorthodox theory of rational action is the central idea in a reformulation of Kant's ethical and political thought, wherein rational action can be determined simply by principles, regardless of consequences.