Alternative Fuels And Advanced Vehicle Technologies For Improved Environmental Performance

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Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance
  • Author : Richard Folkson
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2014-03-19
  • Total pages :784
  • ISBN : 0857097423
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Summary : Most vehicles run on fossil fuels, and this presents a major emissions problem as demand for fuel continues to increase. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies gives an overview of key developments in advanced fuels and vehicle technologies to improve the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector. Part I considers the role of alternative fuels such as electricity, alcohol, and hydrogen fuel cells, as well as advanced additives and oils, in environmentally sustainable transport. Part II explores methods of revising engine and vehicle design to improve environmental performance and fuel economy. It contains chapters on improvements in design, aerodynamics, combustion, and transmission. Finally, Part III outlines developments in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, and provides an overview of the benefits and limitations of these vehicles in terms of their environmental impact, safety, cost, and design practicalities. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies is a standard reference for professionals, engineers, and researchers in the automotive sector, as well as vehicle manufacturers, fuel system developers, and academics with an interest in this field. Provides a broad-ranging review of recent research into advanced fuels and vehicle technologies that will be instrumental in improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector Reviews the development of alternative fuels, more efficient engines, and powertrain technologies, as well as hybrid and electric vehicle technologies

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2013-04-14
  • Total pages :394
  • ISBN : 0309268524
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Summary : For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns about petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80 percent across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. This report examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, and effective policies such as research and development, subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers, such as cost and consumer choice.

Cost, Effectiveness, and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles

Cost, Effectiveness, and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles, Phase 2
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2015-09-28
  • Total pages :466
  • ISBN : 0309373913
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Summary : The light-duty vehicle fleet is expected to undergo substantial technological changes over the next several decades. New powertrain designs, alternative fuels, advanced materials and significant changes to the vehicle body are being driven by increasingly stringent fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards. By the end of the next decade, cars and light-duty trucks will be more fuel efficient, weigh less, emit less air pollutants, have more safety features, and will be more expensive to purchase relative to current vehicles. Though the gasoline-powered spark ignition engine will continue to be the dominant powertrain configuration even through 2030, such vehicles will be equipped with advanced technologies, materials, electronics and controls, and aerodynamics. And by 2030, the deployment of alternative methods to propel and fuel vehicles and alternative modes of transportation, including autonomous vehicles, will be well underway. What are these new technologies - how will they work, and will some technologies be more effective than others? Written to inform The United States Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards, this new report from the National Research Council is a technical evaluation of costs, benefits, and implementation issues of fuel reduction technologies for next-generation light-duty vehicles. Cost, Effectiveness, and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles estimates the cost, potential efficiency improvements, and barriers to commercial deployment of technologies that might be employed from 2020 to 2030. This report describes these promising technologies and makes recommendations for their inclusion on the list of technologies applicable for the 2017-2025 CAFE standards.

Alternative Fuels and Their Utilization Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines

Alternative Fuels and Their Utilization Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines
  • Author : Akhilendra Pratap Singh,Yogesh C. Sharma,Nirendra N. Mustafi,Avinash Kumar Agarwal
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2019-10-10
  • Total pages :329
  • ISBN : 9811504180
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Summary : This book covers alternative fuels and their utilization strategies in internal combustion engines. The main objective of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the production and utilization aspects of different types of liquid and gaseous alternative fuels. In the last few years, methanol and DME have gained significant attention of the energy sector, because of their capability to be utilized in different types of engines. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers and practicing engineers alike.

Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles

Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2011-06-03
  • Total pages :232
  • ISBN : 0309216389
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Summary : Various combinations of commercially available technologies could greatly reduce fuel consumption in passenger cars, sport-utility vehicles, minivans, and other light-duty vehicles without compromising vehicle performance or safety. Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy estimates the potential fuel savings and costs to consumers of available technology combinations for three types of engines: spark-ignition gasoline, compression-ignition diesel, and hybrid. According to its estimates, adopting the full combination of improved technologies in medium and large cars and pickup trucks with spark-ignition engines could reduce fuel consumption by 29 percent at an additional cost of $2,200 to the consumer. Replacing spark-ignition engines with diesel engines and components would yield fuel savings of about 37 percent at an added cost of approximately $5,900 per vehicle, and replacing spark-ignition engines with hybrid engines and components would reduce fuel consumption by 43 percent at an increase of $6,000 per vehicle. The book focuses on fuel consumption--the amount of fuel consumed in a given driving distance--because energy savings are directly related to the amount of fuel used. In contrast, fuel economy measures how far a vehicle will travel with a gallon of fuel. Because fuel consumption data indicate money saved on fuel purchases and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, the book finds that vehicle stickers should provide consumers with fuel consumption data in addition to fuel economy information.

Review of the Research Program of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership

Review of the Research Program of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on the Review of the Research Program of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership, Phase 5
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2017-08-28
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 0309456878
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Summary : Review of the Research Program of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership: Fifth Report follows on four previous reviews of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, which was the predecessor of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership. The U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle Efficiency and Energy Sustainability) vision, according to the charter of the Partnership, is this: American consumers have a broad range of affordable personal transportation choices that reduce petroleum consumption and significantly reduce harmful emissions from the transportation sector. Its mission is as follows: accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of efficient and clean advanced light-duty vehicles (LDVs), as well as related energy infrastructure. The Partnership focuses on precompetitive research and development (R&D) that can help to accelerate the emergence of advanced technologies to be commercialization-feasible. The guidance for the work of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership as well as the priority setting and targets for needed research are provided by joint industry/government technical teams. This structure has been demonstrated to be an effective means of identifying high-priority, long-term precompetitive research needs for each technology with which the Partnership is involved. Technical areas in which research and development as well as technology validation programs have been pursued include the following: internal combustion engines (ICEs) potentially operating on conventional and various alternative fuels, automotive fuel cell power systems, hydrogen storage systems (especially onboard vehicles), batteries and other forms of electrochemical energy storage, electric propulsion systems, hydrogen production and delivery, and materials leading to vehicle weight reductions.

Technologies and Applications for Smart Charging of Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

Technologies and Applications for Smart Charging of Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles
  • Author : Ottorino Veneri
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2016-12-30
  • Total pages :307
  • ISBN : 3319436511
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Summary : This book outlines issues related to massive integration of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into power grids. Electricity is becoming the preferred energy vector for the next new generation of road vehicles. It is widely acknowledged that road vehicles based on full electric or hybrid drives can mitigate problems related to fossil fuel dependence. This book explains the emerging and understanding of storage systems for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. The recharging stations for these types of vehicles might represent a great advantage for the electric grid by facilitating integration of renewable and distributed energy production. This book presents a broad review from analyzing current literature to on-going research projects about the new power technologies related to the various charging architectures for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. Specifically focusing on DC fast charging operations, as well as, grid-connected power converters and the full range of energy storage systems. These key components are analyzed for distributed generation and charging system integration into micro-grids. The authors demonstrate that these storage systems represent effective interfaces for the control and management of renewable and sustainable distributed energy resources. New standards and applications are emerging from micro-grid pilot projects around the world and case studies demonstrate the convenience and feasibility of distributed energy management. The material in this unique volume discusses potential avenues for further research toward achieving more reliable, more secure and cleaner energy.

Electric Vehicles: Prospects and Challenges

Electric Vehicles: Prospects and Challenges
  • Author : Tariq Muneer,Mohan Kolhe,Aisling Doyle
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2017-07-11
  • Total pages :586
  • ISBN : 0128030402
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Summary : Electric Vehicles: Prospects and Challenges looks at recent design methodologies and technological advancements in electric vehicles and the integration of electric vehicles in the smart grid environment, comprehensively covering the fundamentals, theory and design, recent developments and technical issues involved with electric vehicles. Considering the prospects, challenges and policy status of specific regions and vehicle deployment, the global case study references make this book useful for academics and researchers in all engineering and sustainable transport areas. Presents a systematic and integrated reference on the essentials of theory and design of electric vehicle technologies Provides a comprehensive look at the research and development involved in the use of electric vehicle technologies Includes global case studies from leading EV regions, including Nordic and European countries China and India

Green Aviation

Green Aviation
  • Author : Emily S. Nelson,D.R. Reddy
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2018-06-12
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 1136318194
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Summary : Aircraft emissions currently account for ~3.5% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The number of passenger miles has increased by 5% annually despite 9/11, two wars and gloomy economic conditions. Since aircraft have no viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, improvements in aircraft efficiency and alternative fuel development become essential. This book comprehensively covers the relevant issues in green aviation. Environmental impacts, technology advances, public policy and economics are intricately linked to the pace of development that will be realized in the coming decades. Experts from NASA, industry and academia review current technology development in green aviation that will carry the industry through 2025 and beyond. This includes increased efficiency through better propulsion systems, reduced drag airframes, advanced materials and operational changes. Clean combustion and emission control of noise, exhaust gases and particulates are also addressed through combustor design and the use of alternative fuels. Economic imperatives from aircraft lifetime and maintenance logistics dictate the drive for "drop-in" fuels, blending jet-grade and biofuel. New certification standards for alternative fuels are outlined. Life Cycle Assessments are used to evaluate worldwide biofuel approaches, highlighting that there is no single rational approach for sustainable buildup. In fact, unless local conditions are considered, the use of biofuels can create a net increase in environmental impact as a result of biofuel manufacturing processes. Governmental experts evaluate current and future regulations and their impact on green aviation. Sustainable approaches to biofuel development are discussed for locations around the globe, including the US, EU, Brazil, China and India.

Autonomous Vehicle Technology

Autonomous Vehicle Technology
  • Author : James M. Anderson,Kalra Nidhi,Karlyn D. Stanley,Paul Sorensen,Constantine Samaras,Oluwatobi A. Oluwatola
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2014-01-10
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : 0833084372
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Summary : The automotive industry appears close to substantial change engendered by “self-driving” technologies. This technology offers the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare—saving lives; reducing crashes, congestion, fuel consumption, and pollution; increasing mobility for the disabled; and ultimately improving land use. This report is intended as a guide for state and federal policymakers on the many issues that this technology raises.

Advances in Eco-Fuels for a Sustainable Environment

Advances in Eco-Fuels for a Sustainable Environment
  • Author : Kalam Azad
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2018-11-30
  • Total pages :517
  • ISBN : 008102777X
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Summary : Advances in Eco-fuels for Sustainable Environment presents the most recent developments in the field of environmentally friendly eco-fuels. Dr. Kalad Azad and his team of contributors analyze the latest bio-energy technologies and emission control strategies, while also considering other important factors, such as environmental sustainability and energy efficiency improvement. Coverage includes biofuel extraction and conversion technologies, the implementation of biotechnologies and system improvement methods in the process industries. This book will help readers develop a deeper understanding of the relevant concepts and solutions to global sustainability issues with the goal of achieving cleaner, more efficient energy. Energy industry practitioners, energy policymakers and government organizations, renewables researchers and academics will find this book extremely useful. Focuses on recent developments in the field of eco-fuels, applying concepts to various medium-large scale industries Considers the societal and environmental benefits, along with an analysis of technologies and research Includes contributions from industry experts and global case studies to demonstrate the application of the research and technologies discussed

Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution

Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution
  • Author : Adolfo Iulianelli,Angelo Basile
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2014-07-16
  • Total pages :574
  • ISBN : 0857097733
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Summary : Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution reviews recent developments in this key component of the emerging "hydrogen economy," an energy infrastructure based on hydrogen. Since hydrogen can be produced without using fossil fuels, a move to such an economy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. However, such a move also requires the advanced production, storage and usage techniques discussed in this book. Part one introduces the fundamentals of hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, including an overview of the development of the necessary infrastructure, an analysis of the potential environmental benefits, and a review of some important hydrogen production technologies in conventional, bio-based, and nuclear power plants. Part two focuses on hydrogen production from renewable resources, and includes chapters outlining the production of hydrogen through water electrolysis, photocatalysis, and bioengineered algae. Finally, part three covers hydrogen production using inorganic membrane reactors, the storage of hydrogen, fuel cell technology, and the potential of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation. Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution provides a detailed overview of the components and challenges of a hydrogen economy. This book is an invaluable resource for research and development professionals in the energy industry, as well as academics with an interest in this important subject. Reviews developments and research in this dynamic area Discusses the challenges of creating an infrastructure to store and distribute hydrogen Reviews the production of hydrogen using electrolysis and photo-catalytic methods

Electric Vehicle Machines and Drives

Electric Vehicle Machines and Drives
  • Author : K. T. Chau
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2015-05-13
  • Total pages :375
  • ISBN : 1118752600
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Summary : A timely comprehensive reference consolidates the research and development of electric vehicle machines and drives for electric and hybrid propulsions • Focuses on electric vehicle machines and drives • Covers the major technologies in the area including fundamental concepts and applications • Emphasis the design criteria, performance analyses and application examples or potentials of various motor drives and machine systems • Accompanying website includes the simulation models and outcomes as supplementary material

Health Effects of Transport-related Air Pollution

Health Effects of Transport-related Air Pollution
  • Author : Michał Krzyżanowski,Birgit Kuna-Dibbert,Jürgen Schneider
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :190
  • ISBN : 9289013737
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Summary : Diseases related to the air pollution caused by road transport affect tens of thousands of people in the WHO Europe region each year. This publication considers the policy challenges involved in the need to reduce the related risks to public health and the environment, whilst meeting socio-economic requirements for effective transport systems. It sets out a systematic review of the literature and a comprehensive evaluation of the health hazards of transport-related air pollution, including factors determining emissions, the contribution of traffic to pollution levels, human exposure and the results of epidemiological and toxicological studies to identify and measure the health effects, and suggestions for policy actions and further research.

Alternative Fuels

Alternative Fuels
  • Author : Krzysztof Biernat
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2016-03-24
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 953512269X
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Summary : The presented book provides an overview of the most widely used alternative fuels in the power supply systems in spark-ignition engines and compression-ignition engines, such as LPG, CNG and RME, including the assessment of their operational usefulness, especially in terms of environmental impact in urban traffic. The possibilities of optimizing the ignition processes in engines fueled by gas are presented. The monograph also contains the results of exploitation tests with an assessment of the environmental impact of fuels containing oxygen additives in diesel engines. The possibilities of producing a wide range of advanced alternative fuels (biofuels) with the use of microorganisms as raw materials are also presented.

Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research

Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board,Committee on Propulsion and Energy Systems to Reduce Commercial Aviation Carbon Emissions
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2016-08-09
  • Total pages :122
  • ISBN : 0309440998
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Summary : The primary human activities that release carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere are the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) to generate electricity, the provision of energy for transportation, and as a consequence of some industrial processes. Although aviation CO2 emissions only make up approximately 2.0 to 2.5 percent of total global annual CO2 emissions, research to reduce CO2 emissions is urgent because (1) such reductions may be legislated even as commercial air travel grows, (2) because it takes new technology a long time to propagate into and through the aviation fleet, and (3) because of the ongoing impact of global CO2 emissions. Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research develops a national research agenda for reducing CO2 emissions from commercial aviation. This report focuses on propulsion and energy technologies for reducing carbon emissions from large, commercial aircraftâ€" single-aisle and twin-aisle aircraft that carry 100 or more passengersâ€"because such aircraft account for more than 90 percent of global emissions from commercial aircraft. Moreover, while smaller aircraft also emit CO2, they make only a minor contribution to global emissions, and many technologies that reduce CO2 emissions for large aircraft also apply to smaller aircraft. As commercial aviation continues to grow in terms of revenue-passenger miles and cargo ton miles, CO2 emissions are expected to increase. To reduce the contribution of aviation to climate change, it is essential to improve the effectiveness of ongoing efforts to reduce emissions and initiate research into new approaches.

Electrical Engineering, Energy, Mechanical Engineering – EEM 2014

Electrical Engineering, Energy, Mechanical Engineering – EEM 2014
  • Author : Elena Gurova
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2014-12-08
  • Total pages :870
  • ISBN : 3038267287
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Summary : Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the First International Scientific Conference on Electrical Engineering, Energy, Mechanical Engineering, (EEM 2014), December 2-6, 2014, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation. The 150 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Electrical Engineering, Electric Drive and Electromechanical Systems; Chapter 2: Properties of Materials, Electrophysical and Mechanical Methods and Technologies of Materials Processing; Chapter 3: Researching and Designing of Machines and Mechanisms; Chapter 4: Energy Systems, Delivery and Distribution of Energy.

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
  • Author : National Research Council,Transportation Research Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee to Assess Fuel Economy Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2010-08-30
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : 0309149827
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Summary : Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles evaluates various technologies and methods that could improve the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, transit buses, and work trucks. The book also recommends approaches that federal agencies could use to regulate these vehicles' fuel consumption. Currently there are no fuel consumption standards for such vehicles, which account for about 26 percent of the transportation fuel used in the U.S. The miles-per-gallon measure used to regulate the fuel economy of passenger cars. is not appropriate for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, which are designed above all to carry loads efficiently. Instead, any regulation of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles should use a metric that reflects the efficiency with which a vehicle moves goods or passengers, such as gallons per ton-mile, a unit that reflects the amount of fuel a vehicle would use to carry a ton of goods one mile. This is called load-specific fuel consumption (LSFC). The book estimates the improvements that various technologies could achieve over the next decade in seven vehicle types. For example, using advanced diesel engines in tractor-trailers could lower their fuel consumption by up to 20 percent by 2020, and improved aerodynamics could yield an 11 percent reduction. Hybrid powertrains could lower the fuel consumption of vehicles that stop frequently, such as garbage trucks and transit buses, by as much 35 percent in the same time frame.

Advanced Automotive Technologies

Advanced Automotive Technologies
  • Author : N.A
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :84
  • ISBN :
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Summary :

Designing Green Cement Plants

Designing Green Cement Plants
  • Author : S.P. Deolalkar
  • Publisher :
  • Release Date :2015-09-02
  • Total pages :436
  • ISBN : 0128034351
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Summary : Cement production is known to be a polluting and energy-intensive industry. Cement plants account for 5 percent of global emissions of carbon dioxide and one of the main causes of global warming. However, cement it is literally the glue of progress. Designing Green Cement Plants provides the tools and techniques for designing new large cement plants that would promote sustainable growth, preserve natural resources to the maximum possible extent and make least possible additions to the Greenhouse Gases that cause global warming. Brief and but authoritative, this title embraces new technologies and methods such as Carbon Capture and Sequestration, as well as methods for harnessing renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. The author also discusses the efficient use of energy and materials through the use recycling. In addition, this book also examines thepossibilities of developing green cement substitutes such as Calera, Caliix, Novacem, Aether and Geopolymer cements. Includes the tools and methods for reducing the emissions of greenhouse Gases Explores technologies such as: carbon capture and storage and substitute cements Provides essential data to determining the unique factors involved in designing large new green cement plants Includes interactive excel spreadsheets Methods for preforming a cost benefits analysis for the production of green cements as opposed to conventional OPC